Description of the tour:
At the time of the Habsburgs, Lviv was one of the largest and most beautiful in the empire. All this heritage has passed to one of the richest and most beautiful cities of Ukraine now.
The tour is dedicated to monuments and history that took place during the Kingdom of Galicia and Vladimir (Volyn).
This is a walking tour along the following route: Opera House - Bank Gate - Gausner House - Galician Sejm - Casino - Post Office - Potocki Palace - Ossolineum Library - Akademitska Street - George Hotel - Adam Mickiewicz Monument etc.
On August 5, 1772, the Russian-Austro-Prussian Convention on Partition was signed in St. Petersburg. However, Austrian troops crossed the Polish border on May 14. In September, Field Marshal Esterhazy's Austrian army invaded Galicia.
On September 15, 1772, Russian troops were withdrawn from the city. Then troops entered the city of Austrian troops of General Andras Hadik. On September 16, the last soldiers of the Polish Crown Army left Lviv. The Austrians took power over the city for almost a century and a half. The so-called Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria was established in the occupied lands of the Commonwealth, the name of which is associated with the Galicia-Volyn principality. Lviv became its capital and the main administrative center of the Austrian part.
The transfer of power by the Austrians in the city took place on October 4. The Austrians wanted their participants to be convinced that by becoming "subjects of the Holy Imperial Majesty, they had the good fortune." The city council and the proconsul (mayor) of Lviv, Wojciech Bohm, petitioned for the release of Empress Maria Theresa from the oath of office, noting that the councilors had previously taken an oath of allegiance to the Polish king. On December 29, 1773, the magistrate had to take the oath of the Empress. In 1776 Lviv had 29,500 inhabitants.
The Lviv Academy was transformed into the so-called State Academy. Emperor Joseph II granted it (1784) the status of a university with four faculties: theology, philosophy, law, medicine. The Austrians achieved the dissolution (liquidation) of most monasteries, but there were residences of three Catholic dioceses - Latin, Armenian and Greek.
Despite the introduction of Austrian legislation, the introduction of German as the official language, and the imposition of Austrian and Czech positions on most positions, Lviv remained a center of Polish and Ukrainian culture. The Wojciech Boguslawski Theater operated here (1795-1799), which arrived shortly after writing the most popular comic opera, The Predicted Miracle, or Krakowians and Highlanders (1794). The permanent theater was built in the city in 1815.
The Greek Catholic General Theological Seminary in Lviv, founded on August 30, 1783, was designed to educate priests from Galicia, Transcarpathia, Presov, the Kryzhevets Diocese (Yugoslavia), Transylvania, and Croatia. Its first rector was the later Galician Metropolitan Antin Angelovich. Theology was studied in the seminary. His successor was Ivan Lavrovsky (1773-1846). The seminary became a spiritual forge of the Ukrainian elite, including members of the "Russian Trinity": Markiyan Shashkevych, Ivan Vahylevych and Yakov Holovatsky.
In October 1848, the Council of Russian Scholars was held in the seminary.
During the war with the Austrians, in June 1809, Lviv was liberated by the troops of the Duchy of Warsaw, led by Prince Jozef Poniatowski. The Polish, temporary Central Military Provisional Government, headed by Stanislaw Kostka Zamoyski (1775-1856), did not work here long.
The intervention of the army of Tsar Alexander - formally an ally of Napoleon, and the signing of the Franco-Austrian Treaty of Schönbrunn (1809) forced the Polish authorities to leave Lviv.
Nevertheless, new underground organizations arose to fight for independence, including unions and student organizations (1817-1823), the National Council (1848), which was to lead the uprising in Galicia.
In 1817, Maximilian Joseph Ossolinsky (1748-1826) founded a library in Lviv, housed in the adapted buildings of the former Carmelite Monastery of Shoes and the Church of St. Agnes - Ossolineum, opened to the public in 1826. The institution collected and stored publications and ancient manuscripts, a collection of engravings and drawings, coins, medals and stamps, as well as publishing activities.
In the first half of the 19th century, many churches were dismantled - first of all, the churches of the Holy Spirit, St. Catherine, St. Stanislaus, as well as the city fortifications and walls with the Low Castle.
The outbreak of the November Uprising (1830-1831) caused a large emigration of volunteers to the ranks of the rebels. According to official Austrian statistics, every fourth Lviv student joined the insurgent ranks. The uprising was also joined by a large group of conspired (often in the first generation) Austrian officials, much to the surprise of Emperor Franz I.
Many insurgents arrived in Lviv from the corps of General Dvernitsky, who, surrounded by the Russians, was forced to lay down his arms in neutral Austria, and then (15-16.IX.1831), soldiers of General Jerome Ramorino.
After the suppression of the uprising by the Muscovites in Lviv, they continued to carry out underground activities to fight for independence. Franciszek Smolka's Union of Friends of the People (1834) operated here. The headquarters of the Society of the Polish People (1836-1837) was also moved to Lviv. On November 4, 1844, the Technical Academy was opened in Darovsky's house, on the corner of Virmenska and Teatralna streets, and later Lviv Polytechnic (Florian Schindler became the first director). In 1848, on the news of the uprising in Vienna, the people of Lviv addressed a message to the emperor, calling for equality before the law, freedom of speech, and the creation of a regional parliament. They demanded the restoration of the Polish language in schools and public institutions. They also demanded the abolition of serfdom, the formation of a government and a national army. The petition was signed by 12,000 people: Poles, Ruthenians, and Jews. On April 26, a delegation from Krakow and Lviv, led by Yuri Lubomyrsky, left for Vienna, where, under the influence of revolutionary sentiment in the Austrian capital, the list of demands was expanded. The emperor promised to respond to the request of the Polish side. The Polish language was soon restored to official institutions and censorship was lifted. The first Pole, Vaclav Zaleski, was appointed governor of Galicia. Lviv liberals, seeking the abolition of serfdom, created the National Council. It was joined by Generals Joseph Bem and Joseph Dvernitsky, noted in the November uprising. Later, Generals Joseph Zalusky and Roman Vibranovsky took over the leadership.
On May 2, 1848, during the Spring of the Peoples uprising in Lviv, the Main Russian Council was formed, which functioned until June 1851.
In a manifesto of May 10, 1848, the Main Russian Council declared the unity of the entire 15 million Ukrainian people and supported the national rights of all the enslaved peoples of the Austrian Empire. The Main Rus' Rada demanded that Galicia be divided into two separate administrative units: the eastern one, the Ukrainian one, and the western one, the Polish one; to unite in one province the Ukrainian lands - Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia; teaching in schools and issuing government orders, to conduct in Ukrainian.
The Council consisted of 30 members - representatives of the Greek Catholic clergy and intelligentsia. Bishop Hryhoriy Yakhymovych was elected chairman, and later Mykhailo Kuzemsky from Kryloshany was elected chairman. Mykhailo Kuzemsky and Ivan Boryskevych were elected deputies, and Father Mykhailo Malynovsky and Teodor Leontovych were elected secretaries. The council was divided into departments of political rights, schooling, peasant affairs, finance, and others. "Smaller" councils were subordinated to the Main Rus' Rada. Fifty local councils consisted of three representatives from peasants, burghers, gentry, deacons and 18 representatives from the intelligentsia (including 10 priests). The National Russian Guard was created, and in the Subcarpathians to fight Hungarian troops - the People's Self-Defense and a battalion of mountain riflemen.
The Main Rus' Rada organized the Galician-Ruska Matytsa Cultural and Educational Society (1850) and opened the People's House in Lviv (1850). On October 19, 1848, she convened the Council of Russian Scholars and published the first Ukrainian newspaper, Zorya Halytska, in Galicia.
The governor of Galicia, Franz Stadion, accepted the postulate of the abolition of serfdom, offering in return the payment of compensation, which assured the acceptance of his proposal by the nobility. After receiving the land, the peasants stopped supporting the revolutionary movements.
On April 25, the emperor announced a constitution that guaranteed freedom and autonomy to all parts of the empire, but soon decided to reuse the army, bombing Krakow and Czech Prague. After the surrender of Krakow, the National Committee moved to Lviv. Ukrainian Uniates sent a petition to the emperor for help and protection against oppression by the Poles. Support for the Ukrainian movement has since become an integral part of Habsburg policy.
In June 1848, parliamentary elections were held in the empire. The participants were Ruthenians, burghers, as well as representatives of landowners.
On October 15, in an address to "My Peoples," the emperor called for resistance to the revolution. After repelling the first attacks by the National Guard of the Austrian Army, on November 2, 1848, the Austrian army under General Hammerstein began the siege of Lviv. When numerous houses burned down, including a university with a large library and theater in the former church of the Franciscan monastery, the Technical Academy and the town hall building - Lviv capitulated.
Martial law repression began. The Austrians liquidated units of the National Guard, suspended publications and democratic works. Construction of the citadel began.
However, the city continued to develop. The town hall was renovated, the Skarbka Theater (then one of the largest in Europe), parks, a new university building, a fire station, a House for the Disabled, and a municipal gas plant were built. An Agricultural Higher School was established near Dublyany, Lviv.
Sitting in 1861, the Galician parliament adopted a letter of thanks to Emperor Franz Joseph (1866). Weakened in defeats in the war with Prussia (1867), the Austrian monarchy became a dualistic Austria-Hungary. Recognizing the autonomy of Galicia (1867), Emperor Franz Joseph allowed the introduction of Polish as the official language (along with German) and the free development of national institutions and cultural organizations.
The era of autonomy was a period of dynamic development for Lviv. A number of buildings were erected, including the Galician Sejm and the Opera.
Lviv was the administrative center of Galicia. The Galician Sejm and the National Government operated here.
In 1868, in Lviv, in contrast to the anti-Ukrainian currents in cultural life: the colonialist movement, supported by the imperial government, on the one hand, and the Muscovite movement, the Prosvita Society was founded on the other. Galician Muscovites, who held a dominant position in Lviv at the time, were very hostile to the idea of creating the Society.
Delegations of Poles from the territories under Russian and Prussian rule together with the inhabitants of Lviv took part in the formation of the Mound of the Lublin Union on Mount Vysokyi Zamok, to mark the anniversary of its signing in 1569.
Lviv regained full self-government led by the president in 1870.
The magistrate and the public of Lviv financed the monuments to Oleksandr Fredr, Jan III Sobieski and Adam Mickiewicz, then Jan Kilinski, Oleksandr Hlovatsky, Kornel Ueisky, Agenor Golukhovsky and Frantishek Smolka.
Lviv became an important scientific center, thanks to the university, which was famous for its professors, such as Simon Ashkenazi and Stanislaw Zakrewski (history), Oswald Balzer - initiator of the Society for the Promotion of Polish Science (later the Scientific Society in Lviv) and Wladyslaw Abraham (history of law and politics). Malecki, Pilate and Bruchnalski (Polish philology), Stefan Banakh, Kazimir Barthel, Hugo Steinhaus, Stanislaw Ulyam (mathematics), Aidukevich, Kazimir Twardowski, Władysław Tatarkiewicz, Tadeusz Kotarbinski (philosophy), Eugene Romydekt, geography (Wonsowski) Siberian exile, researcher of Lake Baikal and Kamchatka, Yodlovsky, Tashitsky (linguistics), Ludwik Rydiger (surgery).
Graduates of Lviv Polytechnic were Vladyslav Sikorsky, Yevhen Kvyatkovsky, Ihnatsy Moscitsky, Kazimir Bartel, Andriy Morachevsky, Tadeusz Bur-Komorowski, Belina-Prazhmovsky (as well as Simon Wiesenthal and Stepan Bandera). The Higher Agrarian School (since 1901 the University of Agriculture), the Trade Academy (1889), the Higher Industrial School (1891) and the only one of its kind in this part of Europe, the Academy of Veterinary Medicine, also taught their graduates well.
In Lviv General Hospital (former Piariv Monastery) for the first time in the history of medicine, the operating room was lit with kerosene.
Lviv's cultural life has been enriched by numerous libraries with often unique collections: Ossolineum, Poturytska, Bavorovsky, Pavlikovsky, University, Polytechnic, Shevchenko, Seimov, National Government and City Council, as well as collections of museums and galleries: , City, Sobieski, Lozynsky, Ukrainian and others. Five daily newspapers and 38 periodicals (also in Czech, German and Ukrainian) appeared in Lviv (1878). The first screening of the film (l896) took place in Gaussman's passage in Lviv.
On February 7, 1867, the Sokil Gymnastics Society was established in Lviv, which was engaged not only in educating young people physically, but also in forming the spirit and strength of will and forging personnel for organizations fighting for independence.
Lviv was the cradle of the Polish and Ukrainian scout movement, the place where the first Polish scout teams, formed by comrades Oleksandr and Andriy Malkovsky, and the Ukrainian ones, created by Oleksandr Tysovsky, appeared (1912).
The first Polish sports clubs appeared in Lviv: Chorny and Pohonya (1903).
Many newspapers were published here, including the Lviv Courier, in which Jan Kasprovych, Vladyslav Orkan, and Leopold Staff made their debut. The newspaper has always stood on democratic principles and was mainly a newspaper of the Lviv intelligentsia. Among the numerous contributors was, in particular, Ivan Franko, who lost his job at Zora after a conflict with the leaders of the people's movement. His collaboration with the Courier was the most fruitful of all Polish newspapers for him - he submitted about 900 publications here, and Franko was even offered the position of correspondent.
In 1861 the railway from Przemyśl and Kraków reached Lviv. In the following years there were regular railways to Sniatyn and Chernivtsi (1866), through Krasne to Zolochiv and Brody (1869), Stryj (1873) and further to Stanislav - (1884) through Rava-Ruska to Belzhets (1887), to Yanov ( 1895), to Sambor (1903), to Pidhaets (1909), to Stoyanov (1910).
Lviv also became the cradle of the national democratic movement in Galicia. After the arrests, many National League activists (including Roman Dmovsky) moved to Galicia. In 1908, the Society of Armed Struggle, associated with Józef Pilsudski and Władysław Sikorski, appeared in Lviv, and then the Riflemen's Departments.
In 1880, Lviv had more than 100,000 inhabitants. Over the next 20 years, the population doubled. An oil and gas basin developed rapidly near Drohobych and Boryslav. At the turn of 1893-1894, in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Kosciuszko Uprising, "Panorama of Ratslavitskaya" by Jan Styka (1858-1925), Wojciech Kossak (1857-1942) and the Munich landscape painter Ludwik Boller appeared.
"Panorama" presented the first victorious battle of Tadeusz Kosciuszko's soldiers during the uprising of 1794, which took place near Ratslavytsia. Panorama canvas - to date, one of the largest in the world was 15 meters in height and 116 meters in length. The opening was made on May 5, 1894 by the Austrian Archduke Carl Ludwig Habsburg.
The General National Exhibition was also opened as part of the celebration. At the same time, an electric tram went in Lviv to replace the equestrian tram that ran from Karl Ludwik Station through Golukhovsky Square, Halytska and Bernardynsky Streets to Mytna Square and through Krakivska Square and Zholkevska Street.
At the beginning of the First World War, the Eastern Polish Legion and units of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen were formed here, but on September 3, 1914 the tsar's troops occupied Lviv. The Russian occupation lasted until June 1915, when the city was liberated by the Austrians. Meanwhile, Tsar Nicholas II visited Lviv.
After the conclusion of an agreement in Brest-Litovsk between the central states and the government of Ukraine, in the spring of 1918, Polish-Ukrainian relations worsened. In numerous demonstrations, Poles protested against the subsequent division of their lands.
October 11, 1918, after the proclamation of the creation of an independent Polish State by the Regency Council.
The Military Commission of the Regency Council instructed Colonel Wladyslaw Sikorski to organize units of the Polish army in Lviv.
On October 15, Polish deputies of the State Council in Vienna stated that they now considered themselves Polish citizens.
At the same time, on October 19, at a meeting in Lviv, the Ukrainian National Council was formed, which decided to create a Ukrainian state that covered Eastern Galicia as far as Xiang.
On October 20, 1918, during a meeting in the Great Hall of the Town Hall, the City Council decided to return Lviv to the Republic of Poland.
Duration of the tour: 3 hours
Included services: stories and jokes
The biggest quantity of tourists
in a tour group: 51 persons
Extra costs: 10 USDollar